Modern Coffee Chemistry

Espresso makers were first introduced in Europe. They came into vogue in the United States during the nineties. The same basic concept of quickly forcing hot water and steam through finely ground coffee remained, even though American innovations greatly decreased their cost. So, the resulting taste of the product remained high quality and great-tasting. These devices changed coffee making into what it is today.

After simple espresso has been made, turning it into other coffee beverages, such as cappuccino, latte, or macchiato is as easy as adjusting the amount and type of milk. These new-style and more cost effective espresso machines have been a major modernization for the coffee industry and coffee fans. Not to mention the delicious new ways they affect gourmet coffee chemistry.

The French press is another device that started in Europe and expanded all over the world. It consists of a glass pitcher with a lid system that uses a plunger push a strainer that forces the used coffee ground to the bottom. Course ground coffee and hot water are placed in the pitcher. After it has been allowed time to brew, the plunger is depressed. The coffee can then be poured out of the top of the pitcher while the grounds stay pressed to the bottom until they are cleaned out later. This method is very easy and allows for more customization in strength, body, and temperature of the water than drip coffee pots do.

A lesser-known brewing method, and probably the most interesting from a scientific standpoint, is the vacuum pot. It is usually one glass pot or container that is divided into two separate compartments, one on top of the other with a small opening between. Coffee grounds are added to the top compartment. Heating water in the lower chamber causes steam to rise and condense in the upper chamber. This is similar to the the old-fashioned percolator method. When heating is finished and the water has risen to the top, the brewer is removed from the heat and left to cool. The partial cooling creates a vacuum that draws the hot water through the coffee grounds and back into the lower area. This device is great for dinner parties because it can make a great floor show and then there is fresh coffee to share afterward.

None of our modern methods of making coffee are really new. Almost all of them can be traced back to the practices of previous centuries. The oldest known method comes from Turkey. It involves boiling the water and the grounds together and then drinking it without straining the grounds out of the mixture. Certainly not for those who don’t enjoy a very full and robust coffee flavor!

With the plethora of brewing possibilities available to us today, it’s very simple and easy to make gourmet coffee right at home. Any of the coffee-making styles mentioned could be just the one to produce a cup that turn you into a coffee lover and has you hooked for life.

What You Need To Know About Science To Get Your GED

The Science and Chemistry portion of the GED exam consists of 50 multiple- choice questions related to the Life, Earth and Physical Science disciplines. You will be given approximately 80 minutes to complete this section of the GED exam. You can practice here if you need help.

Physical Science
As the name implies, physical science is the study of our physical environment. Physical science encompasses a number of branches, which include astronomy, chemistry, physics and geology, among others. In one form or another, all of these disciplines engage in the study of nonliving matter or of energy. While life sciences are concerned with living organisms, the physical sciences study physical properties of nonliving objects. The physical sciences demand a logical approach to thought and a deep comfort level with scientific principles. Since we are surrounded by a physical world, the applications of physical science to everyday existence are virtually endless.

Earth Science
Earth science is one of the scientific branches with the most common everyday applications, among the most common of which is the daily weather report. An understanding of the science of earth and space is a key factor in mastering the GED test. Earth science, like any scientific thought process, involves the comprehension of information concluded from previous studies, and then extending this knowledge by factoring in new information to arrive at new implications and consequences created by the new data.

Life Science
Life science is the study of living organisms, not only their function but also their interaction with the surrounding environment. Life scientists seek to comprehend entire life systems, which may consist of multiple organisms and the environment in which they live. Like all science material on the GED test, life science questions are best handled by looking for main ideas followed by supporting details within the science passages and graphics presented on the test.

The Science Behind Air Conditioning

Air conditioning is less about making things colder and more about absorbing the heat from things. When you feel an air conditioner blowing cold air on you it’s not pumping out cold energy. It’s returning the air it just sucked out of your room with the heat removed. Let’s talk about how it does this. There are basically two main sections in the system. There’s an indoor part and an outdoor part. In a window air conditioner these two parts are situated in the same enclosure. In a central air conditioning system there is a unit outside, usually located in the rear or side of the building, which is the condenser and compressor. The inside unit called the evaporator will usually be hidden in a basement or closet.

Indoor Unit
The indoor unit will have pipes with fins attached situated in an enclosure with a fan. Coolant, commonly referred to as Freon, is pumped from the outside unit through the pipes where it can absorb the heat from the surrounding room. A fan inside the units speeds up the transfer of heat from the room to the coolant in the pipes. The air from the room is returned to the room with the heat removed. This of course makes the air feel cold to us. The heat from the room has been used to boil the coolant in the pipes which is returned to the outside unit as a gas. This process is also referred to evaporation.

indoor air conditioner

Outdoor Unit
The compressor / condenser unit outside the building processes the coolant expelling the heat into the outside air. The compressor takes the coolant and pumps it through the system and increases the pressure in the pipes. This increase in pressure causes the coolant to condense back to a liquid and another fan is used to transfer the heat from the pipes to the outside air. The chilled refrigerant is now returned to the inside unit to start the whole process again.

outdoor air conditioner

Why does this work?
Air conditioners take advantage of a physical law: when a liquid converts into a gas it absorbs heat. This is part of a process called phase change. Freon and other coolants are used because they have very low boiling points. This allows them to absorb heat at room temperature without needing to be heated up to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, like water needs to be in order to boil. The process is however the same. Just as the water absorbs the heat from your stove, coolant absorbs heat from your room.

The Chemistry Of Love

Science: Love at first sight – it’s more than just a saying, it’s a chemical reaction in your brain. This is the point at which you have a fascination and feel an association with somebody. This is additionally seen as the desire or lusting stage. You are somehow drawn to the person of your interest. You don’t know much about them, yet you know you are intrigued by them, their looks, or their personality.


Fascination: Infatuation feels like what numerous individuals consider love. You can’t quit considering your affection interest. You have diminished need to consume or slumber. You need to go through consistently with the one you’re intrigued by. This is the point at which the cerebrum is shooting off such a large number of hormones that you can without much of a stretch be influenced that you are enamored. Your cerebrum science goes haywire and you see the object of your fascination as great. You are not a normal scholar in this stage.


Romance: During this stage you are investing time getting to know one another. You’re on your best behavior. You need to swoon one another while assessing whether you two make a decent match. Regardless, you feel the rush of the hormones, yet a bit of the edge is taken off as you continue to date each another.


Realization: Those things he did that you used to find “adorable” now get to be annoying. You start to see him as imperfect and wonder why you were ever drawn to him. Many see this as a sign they are not the perfect match and they quit seeing one another. What is truly happening is that the dopamine and serotonin levels in your brain are wearing off. You’re beginning to see him for who he really is, rather than Prince Charming.


Acceptance: If you survive the realization stage and discover the harmony between seeing your love as an imperfect individual and somebody deserving of a relationship, you’ve arrived at the acceptance stage. You’ve decided that you two are eager to be on the same path together. You are mindful that you will have ups and downs in your relationship. But you will strive to stay focused on meeting expectations through the good times and bad.

Five Reasons Why Students Fail Chemistry

chemistry-studentsTime and time again, students fail chemistry classes. One of the main reasons is due to procrastination. Initially, the beginning concepts may seem easy to students. However, it is important for students to continually add knowledge and refresh upon lessons they have already learned. This is best accomplished by studying daily for small amounts at a time, so the concepts are fresh and easy to recall. This prevents stressful nights of long and frenzied study sessions, which often are not successful. By reviewing concepts daily and with a fresh mind, students are able to link concepts together in order to gain a wide reaching and solid fundamental base of knowledge.

Second, students fail chemistry because they often underestimate the amount of math skills required to successfully master the topic. Students often make easily avoidable mistakes by focusing solely on chemistry and not in mathematics that are implicit within chemistry. Again, daily practice is suggested to make chemistry problems more familiar and less daunting. Also, it makes sense to clearly and carefully label all variables, either defined or undefined, when using chemistry equations to decipher an answer to a problem.

chemistry bookThird, students fail chemistry because they don’t put in enough time to master the concepts. Chemistry is a very dense subject and involves reading the text. Students must take the initiative to do reading outside of class and prepare questions for the teacher or professor. Only by building a solid fundamental base will students be able to pass chemistry, and the best way to do this is to read all texts, even those for lab exercises and lectures.

Fourth, students often do not believe they can pass chemistry. Chemistry is a very difficult subject, with lots of intricacies, formulas to memorize, and principles to understand. Students must believe in themselves; otherwise, they will only be fighting against themselves when it comes to passing the subject.

Finally, it’s important to independently do practice questions, without falling to the temptation to copy answers from friends or the back of the textbook, which is a resource for understanding, and not just for checking the box to complete a homework assignment.

What Is Chemistry?

Chemistry is a subset of science focused on the composition and characteristics of all types of substances. To put it simply, it’s the study of matter. Those who study chemistry conduct experiments to figure out reactions when different types of substances are combined. This often involves breaking each substance down into their most fundamental elements in order to decipher what components of the substances cause certain reactions. For that reason, it is important that a chemist have a very nuanced understanding of the basic building blocks of different materials, in order to determine the drivers of certain reactions between different substances.

In order to represent each chemical reaction, chemists focus on atoms and molecules, which are microscopic units of a certain substance. Atoms and molecules are labeled with chemical symbols, to better represent the proportionate composition of each substance.elements, the most pure representations of substances, are often named after those scientists who first discover them. For brevity, elements are often abbreviated by the first few letters of their scientific name ( for example, hydrogen is H) on the periodic table. Chemists use different iterations of these chemical symbols to describe elements and reactions between elements and substances. The chemical symbols of different elements may be similar, but each is unique.


The most useful purpose of chemical symbols is to describe and represent the chemical reactions between substances at the microscopic, atomic level. Elements contain chemical symbols, and numbers (to denote proportions of various atoms and molecules). Consistent with this methodology is that the substances that are used as part of a chemical reaction, known as the reactants, are located on the left side of a representative chemical equation, while the products, the result of the reaction, are located on the right side of the equation.


There are many uses for chemistry, one of which is to produce and fabricate new substances. In order to do so, chemistry analyzes the basic fundamental being of substances, in order to understand the basic properties of individual atoms during the combination of two or more elements, the result of these efforts is the widespread understanding and acknowledgement of undeniable laws, chemical formulations, and scientific truths. Chemistry contributes to a greater understanding of our environment, and with a greater understanding, chemists are able to help in the fabrication and synthesis of materials that are more durable, more effective, and life enhancing